In scikit-learn, you can use a precomputed Gram matrix with linear models like Lasso, Lars, and Ridge to solve regression problems efficiently. A Gram matrix is simply the inner product of the feature matrix with itself, and it is used to speed up the computation of certain kernel methods.

To use a precomputed Gram matrix with scikit-learn linear models, you need to follow these steps:

  1. Compute the Gram Matrix: First, you need to compute the Gram matrix from your original feature matrix. The Gram matrix should be a square matrix where the element at position (i, j) represents the inner product of the ith and jth samples in the feature matrix.

    import numpy as np # Assuming X is your original feature matrix (shape: (n_samples, n_features)) gram_matrix =, X.T)
  2. Use the Precomputed Gram Matrix with Linear Model: Once you have the Gram matrix, you can use it as input to the fit method of linear models that support precomputed Gram matrices. For example, with Lasso, Lars, or Ridge, you can set the fit_intercept parameter to False and provide the Gram matrix as the input.

    from sklearn.linear_model import Lasso # Assuming y is your target vector (shape: (n_samples,)) alpha = 1.0 # Regularization strength (adjust as needed) lasso_model = Lasso(alpha=alpha, fit_intercept=False), y)

    Note that setting fit_intercept=False is necessary when using a precomputed Gram matrix because the intercept term is not needed.

    The same approach can be used with other linear models that support precomputed Gram matrices, such as Lars and Ridge.

  3. Make Predictions: After fitting the model, you can make predictions on new data using the predict method as usual. If you have a new feature matrix X_new, compute the corresponding Gram matrix gram_matrix_new and use it to make predictions.

    # Assuming X_new is the new feature matrix (shape: (n_samples_new, n_features)) gram_matrix_new =, X.T) predictions = lasso_model.predict(gram_matrix_new)

Using a precomputed Gram matrix can be especially useful when you are working with kernel methods or when the feature matrix is large, and you have already computed the inner products between samples.

Keep in mind that precomputing the Gram matrix may require substantial memory if the feature matrix is large, so consider the memory requirements when using this approach.

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