The error message "One or more of providers for .. were not defined: [?]" in Angular 2 indicates that there is an issue with dependency injection and the providers array in your component or module.

Here are a few common scenarios that could cause this error and how to resolve them:

  1. Missing Provider in NgModule or Component: If you see a question mark ? in the error message, it means that Angular couldn't find a provider for a dependency specified in the providers array of your NgModule or Component.

Make sure that all the services or dependencies required by your component or module are listed in the providers array and properly imported.

For example, in your NgModule:

import { SomeService } from './some.service'; @NgModule({ providers: [SomeService], // Make sure all required providers are listed here // ... }) export class AppModule { }
  1. Circular Dependency Issue: Another possible cause of this error is a circular dependency between your services or components. Circular dependencies can lead to undefined providers.

Ensure that you don't have a circular dependency between your services or components. If you encounter such a situation, refactor your code to eliminate the circular dependency.

  1. Incorrect Service Import or Injection: Double-check that you are importing the correct service in your component or module and injecting it properly. Verify the service class name and the import statement.

For example, in your component:

import { SomeService } from './some.service'; @Component({ // ... }) export class MyComponent { constructor(private someService: SomeService) { } }

Make sure that the service is correctly imported and registered in the providers array of the NgModule where the component is declared.

  1. Missing or Incorrect NgModule Import: Ensure that your component is part of a module (e.g., AppModule) and that the module is imported in the main app.module.ts or the module where your application starts.

For example, in your app.module.ts:

import { MyComponent } from './my.component'; @NgModule({ declarations: [MyComponent], // ... }) export class AppModule { }
  1. Lazy Loading and Route Configuration: If you are using lazy loading for your components, make sure that the correct module is being loaded and the providers are defined in the correct module.

Verify your route configuration to ensure that the module with the required providers is being loaded for the component.

Overall, the error message indicates that a provider is missing or not correctly defined for one of the dependencies. Double-check your providers arrays, import statements, and NgModule configurations to resolve the issue.

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